Thermal Energy and Electrophysical Agents

Thermal Energy

Hot packs

Application of heat helps to decrease pain and muscle spasm, and increase extensibility of joints, muscles, tendons, and scar tissue, thus allowing same advances during,and directly following, treatment.


Ice or cold application helps to decrease swelling and pain, and is especially effective in acute injuries in which inflammation is still a factor.

Contrast Baths

Alternating warm and cold can help to decrease pain and swelling and is effective in chronic inflammation.

Electrophysical Agents

Therapeutic Ultrasound (US)

High frequency sound waves are transmitted into the tissues through gel or water, to help resolve local swelling, decrease pain and muscle spasm, and soften adhesions (scar).


This is the use of ultrasound to drive topical medications into the tissues, and can be effective in decreasing pain and inflammation.

Interferential Current (IFC)

This is a high frequency electrical stimulation that is designed to penetrate deeper into tissue to enhance healing by decreasing swelling and inflammation.

Neuromuscular Stimulation (NMES)

Muscle stimulation can be used to decrease muscle spasm, atrophy, or swelling, and assist in muscle re-education and reactivation.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Electrical stimulation aimed at decreasing acute and chronic pain.


This is a device that reads impulses from muscles, in order to assist in retraining muscle use or decreasing the incorrect muscle patterns to correct muscle imbalances.

Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)